对话RSK:在Staking大火的今天,为什么依然坚持PoW为王?

Borun 2019-05-15 19:43 2.40万
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从柬埔寨,新加坡到香港,北京和上海,RSK在刚过去的一个月圆满的完成了亚洲之旅。这个开始于2015年,上线于2018年的项目在扩大生态,回馈社区的道路上一直未曾停歇。

RSK的架构环境“RSK OS”元素众多,RSK团队向巴比特介绍道:RSK OS的架构中包括RIF Payments (支付),RIF Data(数据),RIF Gateways(网关)等版块;其中,RIF Payments(支付协议)是整个架构的重中之重,其可扩展性也是饱受关注的攻关难点。如果它能够执行接近实时的,极低成本的P2P支付和清算功能,那么RSK在技术上就能够实现“为亿万无银行账户用户提供金融服务”的愿景。

RSK整体生态的架构(RSK OS)可由下图表示:RSK是一个可以部署智能合约的第二层(Layer-2)开发平台(之于比特币);RIF为第三层(Layer-3),有很多组成元素,如上文提到的RIF Payments(而下文提到的RIF Lumino Network就是RIF Payments的核心组件,狭义上讲是一个链下扩容方案;此外,下文还将反复提到LTCP,此协议是RIF Payments版块中的另一重要扩容组件)。

微信图片_20190515112557

图一:RSK OS架构

经过多年来对链上和链下扩容方案的研究与积累,RSK团队终于在近期取得了针对网络扩容的重磅进展:作为RIF Payments(支付协议)的重要组件,“RIF Lumino Network”上线了。

“RIF Lumino Network a third-layer solution to the Bitcoin blockchain, enables state channels for every token built on RSK increasing transaction throughput and reducing costs by orders of magnitude.” “RIF Lumino Network是搭建在比特币网络上的“第三层”扩容方案,为所有能够在RSK上流通的通证提供状态通道支持,以此极大的提升交易吞吐量,并带来了量级化的成本缩减。”

RSK创始人Diego也再次肯定了RIF Lumino Network上线的超凡意义

“RIF Lumino Network的上线是我们建立全球金融普惠系统的重大里程碑。对RSK和RIF(RSK实验室已被RIF收购)来说,区块链扩容是一个永恒的命题,因为它是我们能否成功服务亿万(未被服务)用户的关键,它意味着突破传统金融系统的桎梏。”

除此之外,RIF Lumino Network将与我们之前已经上线的RIF域名系统(也在第三层)结合,在未来还将与更多的扩容设计(如Unitrie,LTCP等)进行桥接。随着Lumino Network的上线,RSK团队接受了巴比特专访,给出了更多关于LTCP和新上线的Lumino Network的技术信息。作为以PoW侧链发展而来的平台,他们还分享了对PoS共识的侧链的看法,也畅谈了未来的发展规划。

以下是访谈实录: Q1 8btc:The Scalability of LTCP is really remarkable, in my view, but the privacy is somehow sacrificed, what do you think about protecting the users’ privacy? LTCP的扩容性能非常强大,但是这种设计将在一定程度上牺牲掉隐私性,关于隐私保护的问题RSK是怎样考虑的?

RSK: The technology of private payments is improving all the time at a never seen pace. Only the last three years we’ve seen the development of new more efficient cryptographic schemes such as zCash, CT, RingCT, Bulletproofs, Sonic, Sigma, Lelantus, Zether, Mobius and AZTEC. We realized about this trend in 2015 and we decided that the best strategy was to focus on having the most secure, cheapest payments and strong foundation for 2nd layer privacy solutions to be developed by third parties, and that’s exactly what happened. I would have been a bad idea to use one of the older protocols, because many of them have shown critical vulnerabilities in the last year (zCoin, Monero, zCash).

隐私交易的技术发展可谓日新月异,过去的三年中,zCash, CT, RingCT, Bulletproofs, Sonic, Sigma, Lelantus, Zether, Mobius 和AZTEC等高效的加密方式不断涌现。早在2015年,我们其实已经预见到了这样的趋势,而我们也早就认为当务之急是开发出由第三方提供的,在确保Layer-2隐私的前提下,能够实现安全便捷支付的网络。当然我们也一直是这样做的。我们并没有考虑过使用之前的隐私协议,因为这些协议已经或多或少的暴露出了弱点(zCoin, Monero, zCash)。

You can now roll out your own private ledger over RSK using Mobius or AZTEC. Also 3rd layer scaling solutions such as Lumino already provide a new layer of protection of the amount of funds transacted. It makes economic sense to let users choose the degree of privacy they want, although it’s also true that to achieve true privacy the 2nd layer privacy solution must get traction so that the anonymity set is large enough.

开发者现在已经可以通过Mobius和AZTEC在RSK网络上开发私链。当然,Lumino作为一个第三层扩容方案已经为交易的资金提供了一层新保护。从经济效益的角度考虑,用户应该有自有选择隐私程度的空间,但隐私网络也需要足够大的使用群体才能有效运转,那么如何引导用户,让他们有驱动力接受隐私选项将成为一个大问题。

Q2 8btc:What are the major advantages LTCP holds compared to other scaling solutions? LTCP的相比其他扩容手段的核心优势?

RSK:Most other blockchains that are pushing 2nd layer solutions have forgotten that the limits of offchain scalability is given by the possible onchain transaction volume. Every active user needs to be able to perform onchains transactions to enter, top-up and settle payment channels. That’s the real bottleneck. So those projects are scarifying any long-term viability of the platform by increasing the number of onchain transactions without making sure the network keeps being publicly auditable. If you cannot download the blockchain and become a full node with your personal computer, then basically the decentralization nature of the blockchain is gone. It’ has become another centralized financial system. You don’t trust. You verify!

其他区块链都在做Layer-2的扩容解决方案,但是他们可能容易忽视一个重要的事实:链下的可扩展性最终还是要受到链上可以处理的交易笔数的制约的。对于每一个活跃用户来说,创建通道,关闭通道,提交结算需要通过链上交易来完成。这是一个矛盾点:你放在链下的部分越庞大冗杂,而真正能被审计和记录的链上账本就越显得鸡肋了。在这种情况下,非全节点用户似乎与去中心化的愿景渐行渐远。这相当于是建造了另外一个中心化的金融系统,没有什么信任可言,你的工作只剩下了“确认”而已。

LTCP is part of a set of onchain enhancements that enable 2nd layer networks to flourish without compromising the core principle of decentralization. With LTCP you can top-up a payment channel consuming 10 bytes of blockchain space. Compared with Bitcoin, it’s a 40x improvement and compared to Ethereum is a 10x improvement.

LTCP可以在不损害去中心化性的前提下,让链上性能得到极大的提升。LTCP协议充值支付通道仅需要10个字节大小。相对比特币网络和以太坊网络分别提升了40倍和10倍。

To summarize, LTCP does prevent other scaling solutions to be develop. On the contrary, it provides the foundation for those other solutions to be deployed without compromising decentralization.

总结来说,LTCP与其他扩容方式不是互为替代品,相反,它可以让其他解决方案的部署更具去中心化特性。

Q3 8btc:It is said that “Payment Network enabling 5000 tps was launched”, and how many users can thus be served? Could you please give a calculation process? Lumino Network可以帮助支付版块的吞吐量打到约5000 tps,那么预计可以服务到多少的用户呢?能分别给出计算方式吗?

RSK:The actual throughput of any Payment Channel Network (PCN) depends on many factors that are not technological such as the network topology created by users, the usage pattern (sellers vs buyers), amounts transacted, channel capacities. Therefore, it’s not possible to simulate a PCN and predict an exact tps value. What we did was a simulation, in a controlled environment, of multiple intermediate hubs and tens of thousands of users transacting pairwise simultaneously, during a period of one day.

支付网络的实际吞吐量受到很多非技术因素的限制,包括用户网络的拓扑结构,(买卖双方的)使用模式,实际交易量,通道的实际处理能力等等。想准确度量出一个tps的数字是不现实的,我们在可控环境下做了一天的模拟测试,我们的网络在数个中间枢纽的支持下可以让上万的用户同时进行成对交易。

The number of active users a network can serve depends on the all the components of the ecosystem. RSK/RIF can handle a high number of active users due to strategic combination of on-chain and off-chain layers. With the technology available today, on-chain scalability alone will not let you grow past 1M active users, on any blockchain.

而对活跃用户的承载量也取决于这个系统网络的方方面面。策略性地结合了链上与链下方式后,我们的网络(RSK/RIF)可以承载相当大数量的活跃用户。当然,纯看链上扩容的话,目前整个区块链领域还无法突破百万活跃用户的瓶颈。

In terms of on-chain capacity, RSK has a gas system similar to Ethereum’s. Currently RSK blocks have a gas limit of 6.8M gas. Since every simple isolated transaction consumes 21K gas, the maximum payment transactions per block is 323. Currently the average block rate is 30 second, but the miners have the capability to reduce it to a minimum of 15 seconds. So the current tps is between 10 and 21 tps. However, if you do batching, you can already reach 40 tps.

就链上性能而言,RSK有类似于以太坊的gas系统。RSK的gas上限是680万。而每一笔单独的交易会消耗约2100gas,因此每个区块可含最大的交易笔数为323。平均出块速度为30秒,矿工最多能将其缩减至15秒左右。因此目前的tps约为10-21, 若批量处理,则可达到40tps。

If the community accept our proposals to add LTCP (RSKIP53), storage rent (RSKIP113) and parallel processing of transactions (RSKIP04), then after the next network upgrade the number of recurrent payments peer block can double, because computation and storage costs are halved. With 100 on chain tps, we could serve tens of millions of users using 2nd layer networks.

在社区升级到兼容LTCP,存储空间租用(Storage Rent)和并行交易处理(Parallel Processing of Transactions)之后,因为计算与存储成本减半,每个区块的循环处理量可翻倍。如果按照链上100tps计算,在Layer-2(RSK网络)的加持下,我们可以支持数以千万计的用户。

Q4 8btc:As a two-way pegged, lightening network-like approach, what do you think are your unique selling points? 应用了双向锚定的,类似于闪电网络的扩容方式后,RSK与Lumino Network的核心竞争力是什么?

RSK:First, you can perform even cheaper payments of RBTC than in BTC. This is because RSK onchain payments are cheaper, and therefore opening and closing of channels can happen more often and at lower costs.

首先,用RBTC支付更便宜。这是因为RSK网络的链上费用更低,包括创建和关闭通道的操作,都可以被更快更便宜地完成。

Second, because the RSK block rate is 30 seconds on average, in the case your channels are depleted and you need to top-up one of your channels, you won’t need to wait ten minutes as in Bitcoin’s lightning network. You can do it in one minute, if you set your transaction the fees accordingly.

其次,因为RSK区块的出块时间大概是30秒(除非通道资源耗尽需要重新充值),用户不需要等到10分钟确认交易的完成,在合理的费用设定下,交易可以在1分钟内搞定。

Another advantage is that RIF Payments Wallet & Libraries are blockchain agnostic, if modules for a any offchain network are developed, it can interface with several payment-channel networks such as Lightning, Lumino and Raiden, so you can think of RIF Payments as a truly unified wallet to perform cheap payments over all blockchains.

另外一个优势就是,RIF Payment Wallet(钱包)和Libraries(库)是“区块链不可知”(兼容一切)的,它们可以与很多支付通道技术嫁接在一起,包括闪电网络,Lumino和雷电网络。你可以将它们类比成一个可以以更低成本交易任意通证资产的普适钱包。

Still another advantage is that because Lumino enable payments in RBTC, it’s possible to bridge the Lightning network with Lumino and enable payments to flow seamlessly between BTC and RBTC.

最后的一个重要优势在于,Lumino支持RBTC支付。也就是说,理论上,我们可以通过桥接闪电网络的方式,让BTC实现与RBTC的无缝转换。

Q5 8btc:Is RSK planning to include other scaling solutions in its design? (Using sharding? Beacon chain as to Ethereum?) RSK是否打算将更多的扩容方案纳入设计?

RSK: Our pipeline of proposed improvements (published in our RSKIP repository) include LTCP, Storage Rent, Storage Hibernation, Parallel Transaction Processing, Compact block propagation, Account abstraction, and Ephemeral Data. Once we strengthen the core with these proposals (or better alternatives) we will move to the next step our of scalability roadmap, which is not sharding, but helping on the building of more efficient 2nd layer scaling solutions. 我们现在的扩容和提速手段包括LTCP,存储空间租用(Storage Rent),并行交易处理(Parallel Transaction Processing),致密区块传播(Compact Block Propagation)等等。等我们完成了这一阶段的代码升级,会立刻投入到的阶段的扩容研究和实践中。但我们不会使用分片(Sharding),我们倾向于使用建立在Layer-2(即图一中的RSK网络)之上的更具效率的方式。

Q6 8btc:“The launch of the RIF Lumino Network is a major milestone in our path to enable a global and inclusive financial system.” Are you planning to partner with more institutions in traditional industry to implement your project? Could you please talk more in detail about your future development? “RIF Lumino Network的上线是实现普惠金融应用系统的重要里程碑。”所以你们是否有计划在传统行业与更多的机构合作? 可不可以透露一下的未来发展计划?

RSK:We are working with multiple partners on the DEFI (decentralized Finance Industry) space that covers from the creation of stable coins, to insurance and factoring, and we are also working with platforms that are focused on specific industries to combine these building blocks and improve efficiency of the financial sector.

我们正在与更多去中心化金融的机构(DEFI)进行全产业的合作,从稳定通证的创造,发行与保理。我们也与其他的细分行业合作共同为金融行业的效率添砖加瓦。

(The first open-source smart contract platform secured by the Bitcoin Network. In addition to the RNS and RIF Lumino Networks, RIF Labs is planning to rollout additional RIF OS protocols focused on data storage, data feeds, and secure communications in the months ahead. ) Just as we launched RIF Name Service and RIF Lumino Network and started to provide Directory and Payment services, we are working to release implementations of the other 3 Protocols of RIF OS (data storage, data feeds and secure communications) and we are planning to have the first integrated suite of the RIF Protocols by the end of the year.

我们(RSK)是第一个可以部署智能合约,且与比特币网络双向锚定的平台。除了目前已经完成的协议组件(包括域名服务,即RNS,和RIF Lumino Netowrk),我们还将在未来探索数据存储,数据馈送(预言机)和安全通信等等。希望在年底我们能够完成一整套的RIF协议(完善第三层)。

Q7 8btc:What do you think of recent market? The rise of price of Bitcoin? Will the trend continue? RSK怎么看近期的市场,包括比特币的大涨?行情是否会持续走高?

RSK:Bitcoin goes through phases of expansion triggered by adoption events, followed by speculation which then gives way to strong adjustment and then lateralization for a few months to a couple years, where builds new bottoms. 比特币近期走势上涨是由于应用的需求增多,随后投机者入场,不出意外的话会有一波强势调整,在未来的几个月甚至几年,价格缓慢回落至新的底部。 I don´t think we have hit yet a new adoption wave so very likely the price will adjust in the months to come. 我不认为我们正在经历一轮新的增量需求,所以很有可能几个月后比特币的价格会回落。

Q8 What do you think of the recent ‘star projects’, like Cosmos?Do you have some other opinions toward other PoS side chain projects (like Wanchain)? 你对近期的一些明星项目,例如Cosmos有什么看法?对其它的PoS机制的侧链项目又有什么看法呢(Wanchain)?

RSK:I think the Cosmos team has done an amazing contribution to the research and development of PoS and deserve the recognition.

我认为Cosmos团队对PoS机制的研究和发展都做出了卓越的贡献,他们值得更多人关注。

I think PoS will find its place for certain uses cases but in terms of protecting the historical information on a Blockchain, PoW remains as the absolute winner in terms of economic security and independent validation.

我认为PoS机制肯定会在一些应用场景中找到用武之地,但从保护链上信息的层面来说,PoW是毋庸置疑的王者。


本文来源:区块链 原文作者:Borun 责任编辑:越乐
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